Banded Penguins (Spheniscus)

Humboldt Penguin(Spheniscus humboldti)

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Humboldt Photo Gallery

Humboldt Photo Gallery 1

They are also known as the Peruvian Penguin. They nest onislands and rocky coats, burrowing holes in guano and sometimes using caves. They are shorter than the African Penguin being an average of 25.5 inches in length and weight ranges from 6.1 to 11 pounds. They have a wide black horseshoe band across their chest and may be confused with the African penguin. They have a black head with a white border that is behind the eyes and joins the white band under throat. They are endemic to the the area influenced by the cold, nutrient rich Humboldt current, breeding on the Pacific coast of South America and offshore islands of Chile and Peru. Because they live in a temperate climate, they lack feathers on their legs and have bare areas on their face to dissipate excess heat to prevent overheating. Their diet consists mainly of fish and krill. There are 5,000 to 10,000 breeding pairs and the population is threatened. Over fishing of anchoveta (a small fish), incidental catches in fishing nets and excessive guano (a nitrogen-rich fertilizer) harvesting have caused a decline in the population. While guano harvesting is better managed, over exploitation is a serious threat to the Humboldt penguin population. El Nino in 1982 caused a 65% depletion of the Humboldt penguin off the coast of Peru and again 1997-1998. There are no known subspecies. They nest in burrows, caves or guano beds close to the sea. They can mate ay any time of year depending on food availability. They lay two similar sized eggs with a success rate of 0.5 to 1 chick per nest.. They can dive to a depth of 328 feet and their average swimming speed is 2.9 mph.

Magellanic Penguin(Spheniscus magellanicus)


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Magellanic Photo Gallery

Magellanic Photo Gallery1

They are the largest of the banded or warm-weather penguins being 30 inches in length and weight range is between 9 and 15 pounds. and have the largest population of the banded penguins. They can live up to 25 years. They are also monogamous. Males are larger than females. They are distinguished by two bands, a narrower black horse-shaped band on the chest extending down to the flanks and thighs and a wider black band on the upper chest. Adults have black backs, white abdomens, i.e. classic countershading and adults have black feet. They breed on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America, from Tierra del Fuego to 29 degrees S on the Pacific side and on the Atlantic side from Cape Horn to 42 degrees S and the Falkland Islands. They eat primarily squid, cuttlefish, sardines and krill. There are no known subspecies. Nests are built under bushed or in burrows. They lay two similar eggs with 70% to 80% of the chicks hatching or 1.35 chicks per nest. In South America they are protected from commercial fishing, but not so in the Falklands where their population in 2002-03 was 20% of the 1990-91 population. The population is stable but declining due to over fishing. Oil spills kill about 20,000 penguins off the coast of Argentina. The maximum dive is a depth of 295 feet and swim underwater at speeds up to 15 mph.

 

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